Category: Research

LiFi Can Now Work Around Corners And Be Securely Coded To End Devices

LEDs Magazine recently reported that engineers from Cisco are now claiming that light-based communications, known as LiFi, is gaining the capabilities to work around corners and be securely pre-coded to end devices.

LEDs Magazine recently reported that engineers from Cisco are now claiming that light-based communications, known as LiFi, is gaining the capabilities to work around corners and be securely pre-coded to end devices.

Li-Fi, or light fidelity, is a technology that uses modulated light waves from LEDs or lasers to transmit data. It is like Wi-Fi in that it provides wireless internet connections, except where Wi-Fi uses radio waves (RF), Li-Fi uses visible light or IR.

The IEEE has been working on a standard for Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces (RIS) as a way to intentionally redirect radio signals in complicated deployments. A research paper in March, whose authors include LiFi pioneer Dr. Harald Haas, claim that RIS-equipped Li-Fi environments ‘can lead to enhanced physical leader security’ in several different ways. For example, an RIS system can detect intruders, and then emit artificial noise in the intruder’s direction as a jamming technique. RIS elements can be pre-coded in a way that only legitimate users can decode, the authors state.

LiFi RIS can create a wireless network that only works with designated devices, allowing for an ‘intentional’ approach to network design. Radio waves don’t offer this type of precision.

The full article can be read here.

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CLTC Launches New Color Lab

The California Lighting Technology Center (CLTC) at UC Davis has established “The Color Lab” in collaboration with the Center for Mind and Brain. The new color lab will explore the impact of discrete color spectra on stress, mood, and alertness.

The California Lighting Technology Center (CLTC) at UC Davis has established “The Color Lab” in collaboration with the Center for Mind and Brain. The new color lab will explore the impact of discrete color spectra on stress, mood, and alertness.

A recurring question asked by building owners during human-centric lighting design is “which light colors should I use to optimize the space for the well-being of occupants?” Today, there is little data to support the use of specific light colors for increased wellness; however, with commercially available color-tuning lighting technologies, answers to this question and more are now being researched.

The Color Lab will be available to all UC Davis researchers and partners interested in studying the interactions between discrete spectra and humans. Partners from The Betty Irene Moore School of Nursing at UC Davis and the UC Davis College of Biological Sciences are already collaborating with the team on the circadian implications of discrete spectra via the Davis Circadian Protocol. This work is supported by Toyota-Boshoku America. More information is available here.

 

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Researchers Use Light As Chemical Reaction Input To Convert Methane to Methanol

Scientists have developed an efficient new way to convert methane into methanol at room temperature. The technique could help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and provide a much cleaner way to make green fuels.

Scientists have developed an efficient new way to convert methane into methanol at room temperature. The technique could help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and provide a much cleaner way to make green fuels.

An interesting question is whether this type of chemical process could create a new category of lighting for industrial inputs. This would not be about visually lighting a chemical plant. It would be an industrial input, analogous to horticultural grow lights being an input to commercial agricultural facilities. This could have all kinds of implications for customized spectral tuning, durability requirements, etc.

The conversion of methane to methanol at room temperature is especially important because methane is 34 times more potent as a greenhouse gas than CO2 is, even though humans emit much more CO2. Industrial waste methane is typically burned in flares, which creates CO2 emissions.

For the new study, researchers at the University of Manchester and Oak Ridge National Laboratory developed a new technique using a metal-organic framework (MOF) as a catalyst. These structures are extremely porous, and in this case, those pores contain a variety of components that each play a role in the catalytic process.

Exposing the MOF to sunlight triggers a chemical reaction that converts the gaseous methane into liquid methanol, which can then be easily extracted from the water.

In this case, the components held in the MOF absorb the light and generate electrons, which are then passed on to the oxygen and methane flowing through, causing them to combine to form methanol.

You can read the full article here.

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IDA Releases 2022 State of the Science Report On Light Pollution

The International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) released the “Artificial Light at Night: State of the Science 2022” report, earlier this month. It is a high-level overview of the best scientific understanding of how artificial light at night affects the nighttime environment. It finds the world transformed by electric light in less than 150 years since its introduction.

The International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) released the “Artificial Light at Night: State of the Science 2022” report, earlier this month. It is a high-level overview of the best scientific understanding of how artificial light at night affects the nighttime environment. It finds the world transformed by electric light in less than 150 years since its introduction.

IDA’s goal in issuing the report is to empower dark-sky advocates and the public with reliable, factual, understandable information about light pollution. “State Of The Science 2022” condenses the current scientific consensus on how artificial light affects seven key topics:

  • the night sky;
  • wildlife and ecology;
  • human health;
  • public safety;
  • energy use and climate change;
  • social justice; and
  • a discussion of the emerging threat from light pollution caused by objects orbiting the Earth.

Where gaps exist in the science, the report highlights them as targets of future research. Read the full report, here.

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Research Indicates Individual Lighting Controls Can Improve Worker Productivity

Research conducted in 2020 indicates that the control of light impacts indoor environmental quality (IEQ)-productivity belief more than other IEQ control.

Research conducted in 2020 indicates that the control of light impacts indoor environmental quality (IEQ)-productivity belief more than other IEQ control.

Indoor environmental quality (IEQ) plays a key role in determining occupants’ productivity at work; however, analyses of the interconnected factors among building physical, attitudinal, social and demographic components in one study are lacking. To fill this research gap, this study investigated these interconnected factors’ influence on occupants’ IEQ-productivity belief, defined as a personal, subjective evaluation of the linkage between the impacts of five IEQ aspects (the quality of indoor temperature, air, natural and electric lighting, and acoustics) and productivity. A cross-sectional survey data was collected in university offices from six countries (Brazil, Italy, Poland, Switzerland, Taiwan and the U.S.). Results of multiple linear regression models indicate that IEQ satisfaction is the strongest positive predictor of the IEQ-productivity belief and this relationship is stronger in private offices. Country of residence is the second primary predictor. Several attitudinal-behavioral factors, including thermal comfort, perceived ease of controlling indoor environmental features, and attitudes toward sharing controls are all positively associated with IEQ-productivity belief. Interestingly, the level of control accessibility to light switches has the strongest impact as opposed to other controls. On the other hand, group norms and conformity intention are not significant predictors.

Regarding demographics, men are more likely than women to perceive the IEQs to have positive impacts on their productivity, without considering other variables in the regression model; however, women are more likely than men to consider all IEQs as having positive impacts on productivity, after considering other variables. These findings provide suggestions for prioritizing wellness in the workplace at the early design stage.

Read the full research article here.

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Verdantix 2022 Report, Green Quadrant: IoT Platforms for Smart Buildings

Enlighted, A Siemens Company has publicly released a partial version of Verdantix’s new whitepaper, Green Quadrant: IoT Platforms for Smart Buildings 2022.

Enlighted, A Siemens Company has publicly released a partial version of Verdantix’s new whitepaper, Green Quadrant: IoT Platforms for Smart Buildings 2022. This report provides a detailed, fact-based comparison of the 17 most prominent Internet of Things (IoT) platforms for smart buildings available on the market today. The analysis brings together information from extensive live product demonstrations with vendors, their responses to a 154-point questionnaire and insights from a survey of 285 real estate executives. The analysis finds that leading vendors have expanded their capabilities to deliver more comprehensive applications across areas such as asset monitoring and maintenance, energy management, space monitoring, and building security. The evaluation of capabilities and market momentum reveals that four firms — JCI, Schneider Electric, Siemens and Spacewell — currently lead the market, whilst other providers have strong capabilities in specific areas. Corporate real estate executives and technology buyers can use this report to understand the leading offerings in the market and the vendors that will best meet their needs.

Download the whitepaper here.

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New Research Establishes UV Wavelength, Dose, & Duration To Deactivate COVID Virus

In a newly published study, researchers from Binghamton University’s Thomas J. Watson College of Engineering and Applied Science answer many of the questions about UV disinfection of the virus that causes COVID-19, and lay the foundation for health standards about what offers true disinfection.

A recent EC&M article discusses new research into the wavelength, dose, and duration of UV disinfection to deactivate the virus that causes COVID-19. In a newly published study, researchers from Binghamton University’s Thomas J. Watson College of Engineering and Applied Science answer many of those questions and lay the foundation for health standards about what offers true disinfection.

The paper, titled “Systematic evaluating and modeling of SARS-CoV-2 UVC disinfection” and published in Scientific Reports, is written by Distinguished Professor Kaiming Ye, chair of the Department of Biomedical Engineering; BME Associate Professor Guy German and BME Professor Sha Jin, along with PhD student Sebastian Freeman; Zachary Lipsky, PhD ’21; and Karen Kibler from the Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University.

The best results during the study came from a range of 260 to 280 nanometers, which is commonly used in LED UVC lights. Ye believes the most important part of this research is that it offers a scientific basis for standardizing and regulating claims from manufacturers of UV disinfectant devices.

“The system we came up with can become the model for anybody who wants to standardize the dosage,” he said. “This is how to determine the eradication of SARS-CoV-2 using UVC — maybe also SARS-CoV-3, SARS-CoV-4, SARS-CoV-5. We hope we never get there, but we need to be prepared.”

Read the full article here.

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Health and Wellness Strategies Complement Resilience & Sustainability

The COVID-19 pandemic showed just how important focusing on health and wellness is (and will be) for facility managers and construction professionals. A new report from the Urban Land Institute titled “Greening Buildings for Healthier People” examines all the ways resilience, health and wellness, and sustainability match up.

A recent FacilitiesNet.com article discusses the opportunities to synergistically address sustainability, health, and resilience in buildings, at the same time. The COVID-19 pandemic showed just how important focusing on health and wellness is (and will be) for facility managers and construction professionals. A new report from the Urban Land Institute titled “Greening Buildings for Healthier People” examines all the ways resilience, health and wellness, and sustainability match up. “More and more, real estate sustainability directors view health and the environment not only as important priorities but also as two sides of the same coin,” says the report.

The report, which is available as a free download, gives step-by-step advice on the specific strategies facility managers can employ to combine sustainability, resilience, and health and wellness. One of the biggest benefits of doing so is financial, the report says. Showing how strategies can mitigate risk, benefit the bottom line, and improve employee health and morale can massively improve the financial justification case for facility elements that may have a higher first cost than the status quo.

Read the full article here.

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US EIA Releases 2020 RECS Housing Characteristics With Some Lighting Use Data

The US EIA that releases the data is part of the US DOE. The 2020 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) provides household characteristics and energy usage indicators for the estimated 123.5 million homes in the United States in 2020.

The US EIA that releases the data is part of the US DOE. The 2020 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) provides household characteristics and energy usage indicators for the estimated 123.5 million homes in the United States in 2020. The first release of 2020 RECS data includes preliminary estimates on the structural and geographic characteristics of homes, types of electronics and appliances used within them, lighting characteristics, demographic characteristics, and household energy insecurity.

Between 2015 and 2020, homes with most or all indoor LED lighting increased from 4% up to 47%. Over the same time period, homes using mostly or all incandescent or halogen dropped from 32% down to 15%. In 2020, 82% of homes used at least one LED indoor bulb, while 61% of homes used at least one incandescent or halogen bulb indoors.

Find the 2020 RECS Survey Data here.

 

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Light-Operated Computer Chip Implements All 5 Basic Logic Operations Without Electricity

The demand for next-generation computers that can quickly calculate and process a lot of information is rapidly increasing. A logic device is a circuit that obtains an output value by applying one or more logic inputs to certain logic operation (AND, OR, etc.). A logic circuit can be made by combining a plurality of electronic transistors.

The demand for next-generation computers that can quickly calculate and process a lot of information is rapidly increasing. A logic device is a circuit that obtains an output value by applying one or more logic inputs to certain logic operation (AND, OR, etc.). A logic circuit can be made by combining a plurality of electronic transistors.

GIST (Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, President Kiseon Kim) School of Materials Science and Engineering Professor Gun Young Jung’s research team along with Dr. Yusin Pak’s research team at the Sensor System Research Center at the Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST, President Seok-Jin Yoon) developed technology for optical-logic devices that operate with light using organic and inorganic perovskite* materials.

The research team focused on optical-logic devices that use light with low physical energy loss as an input signal. For this purpose, organic and inorganic perovskite that absorbs light to generate electricity was used. They succeeded in developing a stacked perovskite optical-logic device in which two types of perovskite thin films with different light absorption spectra are stacked like a sandwich.

It has been proven that the desired binary logic operation is possible by inputting two lights of different wavelengths and intensities. Optical-logic devices using light operate only with light energy without electricity, raising expectations for the development of power-free optical computer processor chips. Logic operation is an operation applied to one or two binary numbers and refers to a system that derives a result value according to a set rule.

Existing logic devices can only perform one logic operation, but the perovskite optical-logic device developed by the research team can perform and implement five different basic logic operations with one device: AND, OR, NAND, NOR, and NOT.

Read the full article in Opli here.

 

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