Month: July 2013

DOE Data on Large Hospitals

The Department of Energy’s Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey is one of the most valuable ongoing research resources for the lighting industry, profiling number of buildings, floorspace square footage and…

The Department of Energy’s Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey is one of the most valuable ongoing research resources for the lighting industry, profiling number of buildings, floorspace square footage and other information by building market type.

Unfortunately, the 2007 CBECS was scrapped due to poor research method, and DOE is still working on the next CBECS after Congressionally mandated cuts resulted in a delay.

Until then, DOE published a report on large hospitals (>200,000 sq.ft.). These buildings are interesting from an energy perspective because they operate 24 hours per day, feature energy-intensive systems and service thousands of people.

According to DOE, in 2007, there were about 3,000 large hospital buildings in the United States, comprising 1.96 billion square feet of floorspace, with an average of 644,300 square feet per building. A total of 3.3 million employees worked in those buildings, with an average of 586 square feet per employee. The total licensed bed capacity was 915,000, with an average of 2,140 square feet per licensed bed.

About 93 percent of these hospitals used one or more daylighting or lighting conservation features including tinted window glass (80 percent), reflective window glass (39 percent), external overhangs or awnings (47 percent), skylights or atriums designed to provide light (57 percent), automatic controls or sensors that increase or reduce lighting in response to the level of natural light (14 percent), and occupancy sensors that reduce lighting when rooms are unoccupied (46 percent). About 90 percent of them used CFLs and 40 percent used light-emitting diode lights (LEDs) to light 11 percent and 2 percent of the total lit building floorspace in all large hospitals, respectively.

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Learn more here.

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Interview about Senior Facilities Lighting with James Massa, Regional Sales Manager for Kenall Lighting

I recently had the opportunity to interview Jay Massa, regional sales manager for Kenall Lighting, for an article I wrote about senior facilities lighting for The Electrical Distributor (TED) Magazine….

I recently had the opportunity to interview Jay Massa, regional sales manager for Kenall Lighting, for an article I wrote about senior facilities lighting for The Electrical Distributor (TED) Magazine. The interview was extremely informative, and I wanted to share it with you complete here.

DiLouie: What are the major recent trends in how senior living facilities are designed and used, and how are they impacting lighting needs and applications?

Massa: A recent trend in the design of senior living facilities is the result of circadian rhythm research, which directly impacts lighting needs and applications. Blue light has been shown effective in resetting the circadian rhythm of aging adults. As a result, the use of blue light in senior living facilities can help improve sleep cycles, particularly for patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

DiLouie: What are the major lighting design considerations for lighting for senior living facilities? What do seniors need in terms of light level, glare control, color, etc. that is different than younger people?

Massa: By age 60, the eye receives only a third as much light as it did at age 20, which means seniors require considerably more light to see properly than their younger counterparts. They are also particularly sensitive to glare. These vision impairments raise significant safety concerns for the senior population. Inadequate lighting is also a safety concern because it impacts depth perception, making seniors particularly prone to falling. Therefore, an important design consideration when lighting senior living facilities is providing adequate footcandles for older eyes, and positioning the lamp source in such a way that disorienting shadows are minimized. In addition, automated controls can help seniors get in and out of bed safely and also adjust light levels without getting up, thereby avoiding trips and falls.

DiLouie: How would you characterize the senior living facilities market as a new construction market? What is current demand?

Massa: The simple truth is that never before in human history has there been so many older people on the planet. As the “baby boomer” population ages, the demand for senior living facilities will soon far outweigh the current capacity to serve this demographic. As a result, the senior living facilities market will need to include new construction if it is to keep pace with this demand. The “boomers” also represent a generation of seniors that, having been exposed to a swifter pace of technological advances that the previous generation, are technologically savvy. And while it’s true that it’s easier to incorporate state-of-the art technology into new construction, there are also significant opportunities to introduce it into existing facilities via retrofit/remodel situations. For example, LED technology offers a more energy efficient lighting alternative, representing significant electric utility cost savings to senior living facilities. Additionally, with new, state-of-the-art facilities being built, there is mounting pressure on facility owners to upgrade existing buildings in order to remain competitive.

DiLouie: How would you characterize it as a retrofit market? Have changes in best practice regarding lighting for seniors changed over the years to create a retrofit opportunity based on making the design up to date versus energy savings?

Massa: In order to remain competitive with new construction by incorporating advances in technology, including those that represent significant cost and energy savings to the facility owner, the senior living facilities market has become a prime market for retrofits. In addition, LED lamp sources offer a strong option for senior facilities from a safety perspective, while also offering significant opportunities for cost and energy savings via lighting retrofits.

DiLouie: What are the best opportunities to save energy in existing senior living facilities?

Massa: According to the US Energy Information Administration, cooling, lighting and ventilation accounts for 72 percent of a healthcare facility’s electricity use; with lighting alone consuming 42 percent electricity. Based on this, lighting certainly seems the obvious choice for upgrades, both interior and exterior fixtures.

And since going green saves money, senior living communities who achieve improved energy performance can invest their savings in improved care & services for the residents they serve. Additionally, automation that includes features like daylight harvesting, dimming and occupancy sensors can greatly enhance the already significant energy savings of more efficient lamp sources.

DiLouie: What are the best opportunities to update the lighting to current best practice?

Massa: I think it’s important that a facility develop and implement overarching Operation and Maintenance practices in which lighting upgrades are incorporated. To that end, innovative lighting designs and advanced technologies, including LEDs, photosensors and occupancy sensors, can help seniors in long-term care facilities maintain independence and be more comfortable. A shift to more natural, ambient lighting with greater uniformity and high CRI is also key.

As former Energy Secretary Steven Chu said on so many occasions, “energy efficiency isn’t just low-hanging fruit; it’s fruit lying on the ground.” To that end, the first lighting retrofit a facility can undertake is the exterior lighting for the parking lot or structure.

While the upfront costs are more than traditional fixtures, LED luminaires lessen the facility’s energy consumption, and energy and maintenance costs. Additionally, many times a senior living facility is located in a residential neighborhood and there are concerns about meeting light trespass requirements; LED luminaires with cutoff meet these requirements while providing desired light levels, which improve visibility and security for both the employees and residents.

Hard-to-reach lighting controls and bright, glaring room lights add to the difficulty seniors have getting up in the middle of the night. Additionally, nurses may need to check residents several times at night and often disrupt their sleep and comfort by repeatedly turning on the room lights. Therefore, it’s important that these lights be taken into account for upgrades.

DiLouie: What special lighting products are available for senior living facilities and what is their purpose and benefit? Please address how some senior living facilities present a mix of commercial, healthcare and residential lighting solutions.

Massa: In the common areas, the greatest lighting concern is often the aesthetic appearance of the fixture. However, in the apartments (in an independent living senior facility), it’s important to understand residents’ sight issues and to design and provide proper light levels to help elderly residents see better with less glare.

Another important factor in healthcare/senior living facilities is that the luminaires remain contaminant free, and meet or exceed relevant industry standards. These standards include cleaning protocols (NSF2 Splash Zone), or maintaining critical environmental barriers to guard against surface viruses (IP65 and K230).

Sconces are an ideal fixture to enhance the hallways both aesthetically and for illumination. Again, it’s important to not only consider styles that complement the architectural and interior designs but are ADA compliant, and NSF2 listed to meet the most stringent requirements for infection control and electromagnetic compatibility with sensitive medical equipment.

Another excellent fixture for senior living facilities is a sealed LED step light, which is a great choice for patient rooms, corridors, pathways, and workstation lighting. They’re on the market in a choice of amber, blue or white LED lamp sources and many manufacturers engineer them to be adjustable to 100 percent, 50 percent or 25 percent of full brightness.

A senior living facility also falls into the category of commercial because of the kitchen. Whether established by the USDA, the FDA or the end user themselves, today’s senior living facility must meet stringent cleanliness standards. Driven by the need to keep foods free of contaminants, the kitchen luminaires must support critical sanitation protocols while maintaining their sealed envelope. They must be designed to withstand rigorous cleaning protocols and meet performance listings relevant to their intended use—including wet location listings, IP65 ratings, and NSF2 certifications—all of which support frequent hosedown and overall cleanability.

DiLouie: What control options are most applicable for senior living facilities, and how would you characterize demand for these options?

Massa: In a senior living facility, lighting control options that adjust based on daylight and occupancy are the most applicable, as they assist residents in obtaining adequate light levels when and where they need them. This enables them to perform daily tasks and activities safely. The effective use of occupancy and daylighting controls also results in significant cost savings to the facility owner. Because controls represent a win/win for both resident and owner, the demand for these options is rising as our senior population is also on the rise.

DiLouie: How should electrical distributors engage their customers to sell the most effective lighting solutions for senior living facilities?

Massa: Distributors need to be the lighting problem solvers. Education is one of the most important ways distributors can arm themselves when engaging customers. Become familiar with the market. Know the lighting problems these facility owners and managers face. Have lighting options available that can solve even the most challenging environments. Work closely with reps and customers to offer the correct lighting solutions to solve any problems. Offer exceptional customer service. The sale doesn’t end when the product is delivered.

DiLouie: If you could tell all electrical distributors just one thing about lighting for senior living facilities, what would it be?

Massa: The most important consideration in lighting a senior living facility is ensuring the safety of the residents. It’s important to understand the light level requirements for various areas of the facility so that residents feel confident in their ability to venture down a hall or leave their room. Because the lens of the eye becomes more transparent as we age, the footcandle, color rendering and color temperature requirements of lighting a senior living space become mission critical.

DiLouie: Is there anything else you’d like to add about this topic?

Massa: As our parents age, we’ll soon see what the future holds as we ourselves begin to stand a pretty good chance of being in some form of assisted living facility or nursing home… By 2025 40% of the population will be over 55. Our ability to serve this growing segment of our population is fast becoming a huge social issue, but also a practical matter, even an economical concern. The key is to bring attention to meeting the unique needs of the aging population and pushing the limits of innovation to ensure their safety, well-being, and comfort.

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Product Monday: RTL LED Roadway Luminaires by Toshiba

Toshiba International Corporation’s TLS-RTLM and TLS-RTLS LED Roadway Luminaires are available in two sizes, the short blade RTLS and the medium blade RTLM, and feature an integral photocell system with…

Toshiba International Corporation’s TLS-RTLM and TLS-RTLS LED Roadway Luminaires are available in two sizes, the short blade RTLS and the medium blade RTLM, and feature an integral photocell system with a 15-year rated life. The integral photocell system also provides automatic dimming capabilities, which reduces energy costs by automatically adjusting light output at dusk and dawn. The RTL luminaires are designed to deliver solid optical performance compared to conventional HID lighting and meet the most commonly requested specifications at a competitive price.

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L Prize Winner Still Going Strong After 25,000 Hours

Well, this is impressive–and Philips is already in a next generation from this original technology. The Department of Energy has reported the LED lamp from Philips Lighting North America that…

Well, this is impressive–and Philips is already in a next generation from this original technology.

The Department of Energy has reported the LED lamp from Philips Lighting North America that won L Prize in the 60W replacement category has shown no falloff in light output after 25,000 hours of continuous lumen maintenance testing.

When the prize was awarded in August 2011, DOE predicted the Philips lamp would achieve lumen maintenance of 97.1% at 25,000 hours, based on the 7,000 hours of testing that 200 samples had already undergone in a specially constructed high-temperature (45° C) facility. Although this far exceeded the competition’s 70% requirement, DOE’s intention was to continue testing the lamp for an extended period.

When 25,000 hours of operation was reached on April 29 of this year, none of the lamps had failed, and the average lumen maintenance of the samples was 100% of the initial output. What’s more, the color was stable, with the chromaticity change on the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) 1976 (u’,v’) color diagram found to be less than 0.002 after 25,000 hours – well within the competition’s tolerance of 0.004 at 7,000 hours of operation. These results show that well-designed LED integral lamps can operate very reliably over long periods of time, with excellent lumen and chromaticity maintenance.

To learn more, download the updated report on lumen maintenance testing of the Philips 60W L Prize entry.

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Jim Brodrick on SSL Standards

Republication of Postings from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-State Lighting Program by Jim Brodrick, U.S. Department of Energy In the world of SSL, the unsung heroes who develop…

Republication of Postings from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-State Lighting Program

by Jim Brodrick, U.S. Department of Energy

In the world of SSL, the unsung heroes who develop the standards and test methods that consistently characterize product performance and ensure safety have been at it for nearly a decade, under the auspices of such organizations as the Illuminating Engineering Society (IES), the American National Standard Lighting Group (ANSLG), the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA), Underwriters Laboratories (UL), the International Commission on Illumination, and the International Electrotechnical Commission. Thanks to them, we now have such basic standards and methods as IES LM-79 for the electrical and photometric measurement of SSL products, IES LM-80 for measuring lumen maintenance of LED light sources, IES TM-21 for projecting long-term lumen maintenance of LED light sources, and NEMA SSL-1 for characterizing LED drivers.

Their work is far from over, but with the basics fairly well-covered by now, standards and test methods are becoming more focused on specific product types and characteristics, spreading into various “nooks and crannies” to better meet users’ needs. For example, earlier this year we saw the publication of NEMA SSL 7A-2013, “Phase-Cut Dimming for Solid-State Lighting: Basic Compatibility,” which addresses a key issue for SSL. SSL 7A provides compatibility requirements for the use of dimmable LED products and forward phase-cut dimmers, which are by far the most commonly used dimmers. Intended to be used to design and qualify new dimmer and LED product combinations, it covers a range of supply voltages and frequencies, making it suitable for any lighting product type or application. Future dimming standards will cover other dimmer types.

A number of other key standards and test methods are still in development. One of these is IES TM-28, “Prediction of Lumen Maintenance of LED Lamps and Luminaires,” which is comparable to TM-21 but at a fixture level and is intended to lighten the testing burden on manufacturers by enabling them to use LM-80 data from the LEDs to help predict the lumen maintenance of complete lamps and luminaires. Another is ANSLG/ANSI C82.XX1, “LED Drivers Reliability,” which helps address the reliability of the key driver element in a lamp or luminaire. Still another is a revision of UL 1598C, “Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Retrofit Luminaire Conversion Kits,” a product safety standard that addresses LED linear replacement lamps.

Even though the standards folks do their best to produce effective standards and methods that are needed for the characterization of the technology, there’s always the potential for mismatches between these and the real-world situations for which they’re ultimately intended. That’s why it’s important for users and developers to communicate at some level, to ensure that standards and test methods are not only effective, but are also useful and application-friendly. To help that process, DOE — which works closely with standards-setting organizations and offers technical assistance and support — has lately been reaching out to lighting designers and representatives from utility programs, obtaining their valuable input through surveys and in person at our annual CALiPER standards roundtables, the most recent of which was held in April. These roundtables are also attended by standards-setting organizations and are intended to help ensure that their efforts effectively address the industry’s needs.

Standards and test methods may not be glamorous, but they’re essential for the success of any technology, and SSL is no exception. To learn more about standards development for solid-state lighting, visit www.ssl.energy.gov/standards.html.

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Lighting Equipment Shipments Continued to Improve During the First Quarter of 2013

NEMA’s Lighting Systems Index increased in the first quarter of 2013 following a 3.4 gain in the fourth quarter of 2012, growing 5.4 percent on a quarter-to-quarter basis and by…

NEMA’s Lighting Systems Index increased in the first quarter of 2013 following a 3.4 gain in the fourth quarter of 2012, growing 5.4 percent on a quarter-to-quarter basis and by 3.8 percent on a year-over-year basis. Lighting equipment demand has struggled to gain traction since the recovery began and remains well below the levels observed during the previous economic expansion. Fixtures, miniature lamps, emergency lamps and large lamps registered gains in sales value while ballasts fell further on a year-over-year basis.

Some key drivers for lighting equipment demand are improving. The housing recovery remains on track as overall housing starts were roughly 20 percent higher in April on a year-over-year basis. Building permits, a typically less volatile measure, climbed more than 14 percent in April from a year ago. Total housing starts are estimated to surpass 1 million in 2013 and 1.275 million in 2014.

By contrast, nonresidential construction is improving more slowly, with investment outlays up slightly more than 1 percent on a year-over-year basis in the first quarter. Leading indicators such as architecture firm billings and income property prices continue to indicate that continued improvement is on the horizon, as the industrial and commercial components of the Architecture Billings Index (ABI) climbed to its highest level in a year and top line readings increased for the second month in a row in March. The outlook for commercial construction (including office, retail, warehouse, dining/drinking establishments) is more promising for electrical equipment manufacturers as it is expected to outpace the broader sector in the coming several quarters.

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Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Launches Interactive Home Lighting Resource

The Lighting Research Center (LRC) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute has launched Lighting Patterns for Homes, an interactive website to help homeowners, contractors and builders choose the right lamps, luminaires and…

The Lighting Research Center (LRC) at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute has launched Lighting Patterns for Homes, an interactive website to help homeowners, contractors and builders choose the right lamps, luminaires and controls to maximize energy savings, calculate lighting costs and achieve lighting effects to meet a wide range of needs in their homes. It also shows how to design safe, healthy lighting for aging adults.

Check it out here.

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Product Monday: Lightline Movable Wall by KI

Lightline by KI is a pre-assembled, unitized glass wall system designed to flexibility in design and daylight in spaces. Unlimited butt-glazing (with no vertical posts) eliminates visual breaks, and its…

Lightline by KI is a pre-assembled, unitized glass wall system designed to flexibility in design and daylight in spaces. Unlimited butt-glazing (with no vertical posts) eliminates visual breaks, and its slim, compact rectilinear profiles are diminutive. Installed walls can be easily reconfigured as space layouts change.

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New Book Illuminates Candelas, Lumens and Lux

CANDELAS, LUMENS AND LUX (146 pp., softcover) by Owen F. Ransen is a brief and light introduction to the concepts and mathematics of illumination. The book is aimed at architects,…

Candelas-Lumens-And-Lux-ThumbnailCANDELAS, LUMENS AND LUX (146 pp., softcover) by Owen F. Ransen is a brief and light introduction to the concepts and mathematics of illumination. The book is aimed at architects, civil engineers, road engineers, photographers, interior designers as well as anyone who needs to understand artificial lighting.

The book can be used as the basis of a short course on lighting aimed in high schools, technical colleges and universities, as well as inside companies involved in the lighting industry.

CANDELAS, LUMENS AND LUX is available for $19.99. Click here for more information and to download a PDF file which contains the first two pages of each chapter.

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