Category: Lighting Design

ACTLD’s Koert Vermuelen Talks Lighting and Architecture

In this video, Koert Vermeulen, principal designer and founder of ACTLD, talks about lighting and architecture, touching on subjects such as emotions and context.

In this video, Koert Vermeulen, principal designer and founder of ACTLD, talks about lighting and architecture, touching on subjects such as emotions and context.

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Masters of Light: Peter Veale on the 7 Basic Principles of Great Restaurant Lighting

In “The 7 Basic Principles of Great Restaurant Lighting,” part of the UK’s LIGHTING Magazine Masters of Light webcast series, Peter Veale, Firefly Lighting Design examines key lighting trends and techniques in various interiors that how they can be used to make restaurant diners, food, and interiors look their best.

Episodes of the UK’s LIGHTING Magazine’s “Masters of Light” webcast series are now available for on-demand viewing. In this series, lighting designers, artists and architects talk about their work, methods and philosophy in one-hour retrospectives hosted by the magazine’s editors.

In “The 7 Basic Principles of Great Restaurant Lighting,” Peter Veale, Firefly Lighting Design examines key lighting trends and techniques in various interiors that how they can be used to make restaurant diners, food and interiors look their best.

Click here to check it out.

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Masters of Light: Dean Skira on Outdoor Lighting

In “How to Integrate Light into Outdoor Space,” part of the UK’s LIGHTING Magazine Masters of Light webcast series, Skira Architectural Lighting’s Dean Skira explores some of his recent projects to show how layers of embedded lighting were integrated into the urban nightscape.

Episodes of the UK’s LIGHTING Magazine’s “Masters of Light” webcast series are now available for on-demand viewing. In this series, lighting designers, artists and architects talk about their work, methods and philosophy in one-hour retrospectives hosted by the magazine’s editors.

In “How to Integrate Light into Outdoor Space,” Skira Architectural Lighting’s Dean Skira explores some of his recent projects to show how layers of embedded lighting were integrated into the urban nightscape.

Click here to check it out.

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Sports Lighting 101

Below is my contribution to the August issue of tED Magazine on the topic of sports lighting. Reprinted with permission. Since 2000, an average 60 percent of Americans have identified…

Below is my contribution to the August issue of tED Magazine on the topic of sports lighting. Reprinted with permission.

Since 2000, an average 60 percent of Americans have identified themselves as a sports fan, according to Gallup. In 2016, U.S. construction spending on amusement and recreation facilities (not including those built as part of educational facilities) increased nearly 10 percent to about $22 billion. In regard to lighting, new and renovated facilities are a juncture of venerable best practice, robust regulation and new technology.

In 2015, the Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) published an update to RP-6, Sports and Recreational Area Lighting. RP-6 states, “The goal of lighting for sports is to provide an appropriate luminous environment that contributes to the visibility of the playing target (ball), the competitors and the surrounding backgrounds.” Put another way, sports lighting should deliver optimal light levels and visual comfort for play and spectating.

Achieving this goal requires addressing quantity of illumination, or providing minimum maintained horizontal and/or vertical light levels. It also requires addressing quality of illumination, which incorporates a range of factors such as uniformity, glare, modeling and color quality. Care should be taken to minimize light trespass and skyglow in outdoor installations as dark-sky communities continue to grow across the U.S. Finally, selecting efficient luminaires, avoiding overlighting and using lighting controls can achieve good lighting while minimizing energy consumption.

Lighting the Bridgestone Arena. Photo by John Russell. Image courtesy of Eaton’s Ephesus Lighting.

Recommendations are geared by venue, sport and classification of play. Venues include both indoor and outdoor spaces—arenas, covered stadiums, athletic fields, field houses, gymnasiums and pools. Sports include aerial (e.g., baseball, basketball, football) and ground level (e.g., hockey, boxing, skating). Classification of play includes Class I (competition play with 5,000+ spectators), Class II (competition play with up to 5,000 spectators), Class III (competition play with up to 2,000 spectators) and Class IV (competition or recreational play with limited or no spectators). Some facilities are used for different sports and classifications of play, and therefore should be able to address the requirements of all uses.

Class I facilities, of course, impose the most complex requirements. Not only do these facilities have special design requirements, often broadcasting is involved. Sports organizations and/or broadcasters may impose detailed lighting requirements regulating everything from light levels to color.

Let’s look at a football field as an example. This sport is multidirectional, combining aerial and ground play. Typical lighting includes aimable floodlights mounted on crossarms fixed on poles. For nighttime play on a Class I field, IES recommends 100 footcandles (fc) of maintained horizontal illumination, measured or calculated 3 ft. above the field on a 30-ft. x 30-ft. grid. It is important the light distribute uniformly across the playing area. The Uniformity Ratio (UR), expressed as a ratio between the highest and lowest calculated or measured light level values, should be 1.7:1 or less. The Coefficient of Variation (CV), which expresses a weighted average of all light level values, should be 0.13 or less.

These recommendations become less stringent for other classifications: 50 fc, 2:1 or less UR, and 0.17 or less CV for Class II; 30 fc, 2.5:1 or less UR, and 0.21 or less CV for Class III; and 20 fc, 3:1 or less UR, and 0.25 or less CV for Class IV.

Continuing our example, luminaires are often mounted on poles typically varying in quantity as four, six or eight poles. These poles commonly install along the sides of the football field behind the bleachers to ensure clear spectator views. With larger setbacks, more luminaires and taller poles may be necessary.

Floodlights should be aimed out of the players’ line of sight to avoid direct glare. Each floodlight’s beam spread should place the highest quantity of its light output on the field without producing a “hot spot,” and with coverage overlapping the distribution of adjacent luminaires. A range of beam spreads is available, with luminaires typically designated as Beam Type 1-7 based on the NEMA sports luminaire classification system. This system is being challenged by LED luminaires, which offer the ability to precisely tailor beam spread based on the application.

Comparison of HID luminaires (right) with LED luminaires combining a base TIR optical array with advanced optical features to minimize glare and optimize light control (right). Image courtesy of Musco Lighting.

An eight-pole configuration might include four on each side, inset 30 ft. from each end (around the 0-yard line), spaced 100 ft. apart and set back 15 to 45 ft. A six-pole configuration might include three on each side, inset 30 ft., spaced 150 ft. apart and set back 45-74 ft. A four-pole configuration might include two on each side, inset 90 ft., spaced 180 ft. apart and set back over 75 ft. Major stadiums may see installation of floodlights in four lighting towers (one at each corner) or mounted on architecture such as an overhead steel truss system.

For a 160-ft.-wide standard football field, a setback of 30 ft. would typically entail a mounting height (measured from ground to the bottom of the floodlight crossarm) of 50 ft., according to IES. For a 50-ft. setback, a 60-ft. mounting height. For an 80-ft. setback, an 80-ft. mounting height.

Equipment should be selected appropriate to the application requirements. Light output, beam spread, shielding, color quality, ease of maintenance, energy efficiency, aiming, ingress protection and other factors must be evaluated based on the application. As with other applications, LED technology offers some significant advantages and is being rapidly adopted; in 2015 and 2017, the Super Bowl was played under LED lighting. Notable benefits include significant energy savings, longer life, spectral tuning, controllability (including dynamic events such as halftime shows), and optical options enabling superior glare control and a wide range of beam spreads. Another advantage is instant-ON operation, a critical consideration in resuming play after a power interruption, particularly during televised events. During the 2013 Super Bowl at the Mercedes-Benz Superdome, the stadium went partially dark, delaying play for about a half hour on account of the metal halide luminaires taking time to resume full brightness after power was restored. In 2016, the Superdome upgraded to a new LED system.

Another advantage of LED sports lighting is the ability to incorporate color and control to implement dynamic shows, as shown here at the U.S. Bank Stadium. Image courtesy of Eaton’s Ephesus Lighting.

Sports lighting is one of the more complex but rewarding lighting markets, imposing varying requirements based on type of play, venue and classification. As such, it pays to become educated about the basics and new product offerings so as to recommend and select appropriate solutions.

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What’s New in Retail Lighting

RETAIL ENVIRONMENTS recently published an interesting article about how retail lighting is changing in the LED era. It appears we need to go on hammering the basics–layering with light, integrating…

RETAIL ENVIRONMENTS recently published an interesting article about how retail lighting is changing in the LED era. It appears we need to go on hammering the basics–layering with light, integrating light and architecture, and so on–while talking about the extraordinary new possibilities in lighting with LED technology.

Click here to read it.

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Troffers: Retrofit or Replace?

Below is my contribution to the May issue of tED Magazine. Reprinted with permission. More than 360 million troffers provide general lighting in commercial buildings, according to the U.S. Department…

Below is my contribution to the May issue of tED Magazine. Reprinted with permission.

More than 360 million troffers provide general lighting in commercial buildings, according to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Fluorescent remains the most predominant light source. The development of LED lighting, however, has created a major retrofit opportunity.

“At a base level, retrofit kits provide a simple way to retain existing light fixtures while minimizing expenses and providing longer life than traditional lighting,” said Eric Marsh, Product Portfolio Manager, Cree, Inc. (www.CreeLighting.com). “The next option is a full fixture replacement, in which the fluorescent troffer and pan are changed altogether for a brand-new LED troffer.”

Switching to LED can generate high energy savings, reduced maintenance costs, instant ON at cold temperatures, and controllability. This article evaluates the major options: replacement lamps/retrofit kits and new luminaires.

TLEDs

Tubular LED replacement lamps, or TLEDs, offer direct replacement of fluorescent lamps in existing luminaires. The lamp incorporates LEDs, optics and heat sinking into a single ready-to-install unit. The majority are bi-pin-based T8 products designed to replace 2-ft., 4-ft. and U-bend T8 and T12 lamps. Some products are also available to replace T5 and T5HO lamps.

“TLEDs can generate energy savings in the 40 percent range when paired with a traditional fluorescent ballast and additional energy savings when paired with a dedicated LED driver,” said Jon Zelinsky, PE, Contractor Marketing Director, Philips Lighting. “Retrofit kits can drive energy savings in the 50-75 percent range.”

The DesignLights Consortium (DLC) maintains the Qualified Products List (QPL), identifying TLED products that satisfy performance criteria updated in 2016. DLC requires a minimum efficacy of at least 110 lumens/W as a bare lamp and at least 100 lumens/W as tested in a typical luminaire. (In comparison, a bare fluorescent lamp has an efficacy of about 100 lumens/W). Many utilities rely on the QPL to qualify eligibility for their rebate programs. According to rebate management firm BriteSwitch, the average rebate for a TLED is $6.84 in 2017, with rebate funding in decline as costs decline.

One indicator of TLED’s steady adoption is the Linear Fluorescent Lamp Index, which is based on sales by members of the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA). NEMA estimated that in Q32016, TLED lamps accounted for nearly 13 percent of fluorescent lamp shipments.

TLED lamps are categorized as three major types:

• UL Type A: The lamp operates on a fluorescent ballast. Pros: This “drop in” lamp provides simple installation and, if appropriately listed, does not change the safety certification of the luminaire. Cons: Lower efficacy due to ballast losses, and the TLED lamp must be compatible with the ballast, which remains a point of failure.
• UL Type B: The lamp is powered by an internal driver, which allows it to bypass the ballast. Line voltage wires to the lamp sockets. Pro: Little rewiring, as the installer removes the ballast and rewires the sockets. Con: It requires electrical modifications and proper labeling to ensure fluorescent lamps are not installed in the modified sockets.
• UL Type C: The lamp bypasses the ballast and operates with an external driver, which connects to the sockets using low-voltage wiring. Components should be packaged in a UL-classified kit. Pros: High efficacy, multilamp driver operation, greater control capabilities. Con: The most labor-intensive option.

With each option, the installer may need to replace the existing lampholders to support the heavier TLED lamp. In February 2017, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) revised two lighting industry standards to include G6.6 lamp bases and holders. This provides a new connector system specifically designed to hold and power TLED lamps across a wide range of voltages. The base includes two internal power pins and an additional ground pin that mates to the compatible lampholder.

“If you are trying to maintain your current look in a space, are looking for a fast and easy installation, have budget restrictions, or are spot relamping in a massive building, TLED lamps are a great option,” said Alfred LaSpina, LED Product Group Marketing Manager, LEDVANCE (www.Sylvania.com). “LED lamps are now being produced with optimized glass optics that mimics the light distribution and look of traditional lamps.”

Image courtesy of Philips.

Retrofit or replace?

LED troffers and panels offer a fresh alternative to retrofitting existing luminaires. Among the more than 7,300 LED troffer/grid ceiling luminaires listed in the DOE Lighting Facts database in December 2016, the majority produced comparable light output as their fluorescent counterparts, but at a higher efficacy. About one out of 10 listed products operated at an efficacy of 125 lumens/W, in fact, identifying the product as DLC Premium. That efficacy is generally lower than TLED bare lamps but at the high end of TLED efficacy when accounting for TLED light losses when operating within a luminaire. It translates to up to 70 percent energy savings compared to standard fluorescent troffers, which can be accelerated with controls.

LED luminaires are purpose-built for the light source’s unique characteristics, potentially resulting in higher-efficacy quality lighting with a modern aesthetic. However, luminaire replacement typically poses a higher cost than replacing the lamps with TLEDs.

A third option is a retrofit kit, which packages the lamp or a light engine assembly with optics and electrical components to produce a repeatable solution. By incorporating optics, retrofit kits can improve light distribution and aesthetics while expanding control options, achieving a solution close to a new luminaire. Retrofit kits offer a middle-of-the-road option in terms of cost and lighting quality.

Below are several considerations for selecting an option that is optimal for a given application.

Existing conditions. TLED lamps and retrofit kits lend themselves better to applications where the existing luminaires are relatively new and in good condition, and/or where working above the ceiling is prohibitive. New luminaires and retrofit kits lend themselves well to applications where the luminaires are older and showing wear and tear.

Number of lamps. “Troffers may have any number of lamps—one, two, three, four—so one would have to consider the number of lamps and ballasts that an owner has,” Zelinsky said. “A four-lamp and two-ballast fixture may be more expensive to replace individual components instead of putting in an LED retrofit kit or new luminaire.”

Compatibility with ballasts. “One potential disadvantage of replacing fluorescent lamps with LED lamps instead of replacing the luminaire is ballast compatibility,” LaSpina said. “Working with a lighting manufacturer that provides an extensive ballast compatibility list for their TLEDs will ensure you have lamps that work with existing ballasts.”

“Additionally, it is worthwhile to consider the age or expected remaining life of the ballast in the fixture,” Zelinsky said. “A ballast that may need to be replaced in the near term anyway would wind up adding labor costs.”

Light level and distribution. The new lighting must satisfy the application’s maintained light level requirements. Lower-output lamps and luminaires are available for spaces that are overlighted. Alternately, the space could be redesigned for fewer luminaires. In applications requiring uniformity, light level must be evenly distributed across the workplane. TLED lamps are directional (some with light emission as narrow as 105 degrees) while fluorescent lamps are omnidirectional, which may result in dark spots between installed luminaires. While energy is important, the designer should ensure at a minimum that the new lighting maintains existing lighting quality in terms of light level, uniformity and glare.

Space appearance. “A full fixture replacement is ideal for projects in which the goal is to transform the space,” said Jeff Hungarter, Senior Manager, Product Marketing, Cree, Inc. “Replacing the luminaire enhances the look of the ceiling to be modern and up to date. Other benefits include efficacy performance enhancements, improved dimming and control systems, better light quality and longer warranty.”

If the owner rules out new luminaires, Cree’s Marsh advised retrofit kits over TLED lamps. “A retrofit kit basically looks like an entirely new LED troffer in the space, providing a fresh new look,” he said. “At this point, it’s hard to think of a situation where TLED lamps make much sense.”

Lighting controls. “It’s always a good idea to make sure that you are taking the opportunity to include controls as part of the retrofit,” said Ethan Biery, LED Engineering Leader, Lutron Electronics. “Controls can significantly increase the flexibility and comfort of space lighting, and in all cases, control will increase energy savings.”

The ultimate option, he pointed out, is new dimmable luminaires with high-quality drivers, combined with an integrated intelligent lighting control system that provides robust control capabilities. The next level would be dimmable retrofit kits with compatible controls. If TLED lamps will be installed, the first step is to ensure compatibility with the existing controls, if present. He advises against pairing a UL Type A TLED retrofit with existing fluorescent dimming ballasts. In Biery’s view, TLED retrofits are ideal for applications requiring only switching and that will never require dimming.

“No matter which option is chosen, the same concerns with control of all LED fixtures apply: ensuring compatibility and good dimming performance with any control system being used,” he added. “Poor performance can result if you choose a seemingly quick, lowest-cost TLED lamp retrofit.”

Final word

“Know the goals of your customer,” LaSpina advised. “Are their main priorities energy savings, a new look for the space, or ROI options and total cost of ownership at end of life? This will help you pick the right solution for the application. If you tie it to utility rebates, it is even better for the customer.”

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Classroom Lighting 101

Below is an application story I wrote for the May issue of tED Magazine. Reprinted with permission. As of November 2016, put-in-place construction spending in the United States reached $82…

Below is an application story I wrote for the May issue of tED Magazine. Reprinted with permission.

As of November 2016, put-in-place construction spending in the United States reached $82 billion, a 6.3-percent increase over 2015. After power and highway and street construction, educational facilities are the largest construction market in the country.

Today, nearly 55 million students attend school in some 130,000 K-12 buildings in the United States. Arguably, the most important room in these buildings is the classroom, where the majority of instruction occurs.

General-purpose classrooms typically serve 20 to 75 students and are at least 350 sq.ft. In regards to education technology, many modern classrooms bear little resemblance to those used to teach previous generations. A large number of classrooms now use computers, mobile devices and interactive whiteboards as instructional tools.

This article discusses lighting and control for K-12 general-purpose classrooms based on three sources: ANSI/IES RP-3-13, American National Standard Practice on Lighting for Educational Facilities, 2014 national Collaborative for High-Performance Schools (CHPS) criteria (a points-based design rating system), and the 2010/2013 ASHRAE/IES 90.1 energy standards.

General lighting

The primary lighting layers in a classroom are general and supplemental lighting.

For general lighting, RP-3 recommends uniform lighting on horizontal task surfaces, which provides task layout flexibility while promoting alertness and visual acuity. Light levels should satisfy Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) recommendations. Design light levels depend on factors such as the luminaires’ placement, output and distribution as well as the room dimensions and surface reflectances. Recommended surface finish reflectances are 90 percent ceiling, 80 percent window, 70 percent whiteboard, 5-20 percent chalkboard, 60 percent wall, 25-40 percent task surface, and as light as practical for the floor.

The general lighting typically may be segmented into two zones, one for the educator and one for the students. The educator zone focuses on light on vertical surfaces (teaching wall), and the student zone focuses on light on horizontal surfaces (desktops). The designer must take care to avoid glare—reflections on computer screens and whiteboards and direct glare for the educator—which can be challenging with lower ceiling heights.

Daylight is a valuable source of light for general lighting in classrooms. Ideally, students will be seated with sightlines parallel to windows. The daylight entering the space should be controlled with accessories such as windows or blinds. CHPS imposes significant daylight requirements.

Luminaires may emit direct or indirect light distribution or a combination of both, such as direct/indirect. With a direct/indirect luminaire, the direct emission places light on the task and produces some shadowing for modeling. The indirect emission, meanwhile, provides soft, diffused ambient lighting that may be more visually comfortable and produce less reflection on computer screens, which may be tilted back.

The designer may add supplemental lighting to the educator zone. This lighting may be part of the general lighting or dedicated lighting such as a whiteboard luminaire. Its purpose is to raise vertical light levels on the education surface such as a whiteboard or across the entire educator zone. In the latter case, it also draws attention to and effectively models the educator.

Available equipment is constrained by energy codes, which limit interior lighting with a power allowance expressed in maximum W/sq.ft. ASHRAE/IES 90.1-2010 imposes a maximum allowable lighting power density of 0.99W/sq.ft. for school and university buildings if using the Building Area Method and 1.24W/sq.ft. for classrooms if using the Space by Space Method.

For commercial building applications where color rendering is important but not critical, a color rendering index (CRI) rating of 80+ is typically recommended. CHPS requires either a minimum of 80 or 85 CRI, depending on the selected points package.

CHPS options further require luminaires be RoHS compliant, have an L70 of 50,000 or 100,000 hours if LED, operate with an initial efficacy of at least 50 lumens/W, and/or produce a Percent Flicker that is 10 percent or less across the dimming range. For specific requirements that relate to different points packages, consult the CHPS criteria applicable to your project.

Flexibility

The large-scale introduction of projected images in general-purpose classrooms demands flexibility from the lighting system to produce optimal viewing conditions. RP-3 recommends controls that reduce or turn OFF during audiovisual (AV) presentations, with dimming being desirable for presentations using video and computer projection systems.

The lighting should be capable of at least two scenes, General (normal) and AV (multimedia) instruction. In the General mode, the lighting places 20-40 footcandles on desktops. In the AV mode, 5 footcandles, while limiting vertical light levels to 3 footcandles on the whiteboard or projection screen and 7-15 footcandles on the surrounding teaching wall.

CHPS encourages flexible controls by offering up to four points. For two points, the designer must provide indirect/direct lighting for all general-purpose classrooms. Control enables a choice of General or AV (10-30 footcandles in the student zone, maximum 7 on the screen) modes. Separate control must be provided for whiteboard vertical lighting. Where daylight-responsive controls are present, the light sensor takes precedence over manual dimming for the upper light level limit.

For two additional CHPS points, the designer can specify enhanced teacher controls, which provide teacher control at the front of the classroom for General/AV mode, whiteboard control and a manual override of the occupancy sensor time delay during written exams. The occupancy sensor signal in turn must be linked to a school-wide management system.

Tunable-white lighting allows deployment of another emerging dimension of control, which is correlated color temperature (CCT) tuning by activity or time of day. CCT tuning may be combined with intensity control to enable additional lighting modes throughout the day, such as “focus” (high intensity and cool shade of white light) for test taking, and “calm” (standard intensity and warm shade) to help calm an excited class.

Automatic controls

ASHRAE/IES 90.1-2010 and -2013 require manual control, occupancy sensing and daylight-responsive controls. Many commercial building energy codes are based on these standards or the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC).

At a minimum, the occupancy sensor must automatically turn the lights OFF within 30 minutes of the space being vacated. If the sensor automatically turns the lights ON, it must activate the lights to 50 percent or less of lighting power (bilevel switching).

For manual control, one or more manual switches must be installed at the entrance to control all lighting in the room. Additional manual controls may be installed as needed to support visual needs through flexibility.

Daylight-responsive controls must be installed where daylight is present through either sidelighting or toplighting. The output may be bilevel switching, step dimming or continuous dimming.

Learning with light

Lighting practice for educational facilities is changing alongside the teaching environment and its needs. Manufacturers have experience and offerings optimized for this market, and are therefore an excellent resource. To learn more about recommended practice, consult RP-3 published by the IES. To learn more about CHPS, download the applicable CHPS criteria at CHPS.net. To learn more about energy code requirements, consult the energy code in effect in the project’s jurisdiction.

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Hubbell’s Andy Miles on Outdoor Lighting Trends

I recently had the pleasure of interviewing Andy Miles, Director of Product Marketing, Outdoor Lighting for Hubbell Lighting. The topic: trends in outdoor area lighting. I’m happy to share her…

I recently had the pleasure of interviewing Andy Miles, Director of Product Marketing, Outdoor Lighting for Hubbell Lighting. The topic: trends in outdoor area lighting. I’m happy to share her responses with you here. The interview informed an article I wrote for the April 2017 issue of tED Magazine.

DiLouie: What are the top trends in the area lighting market?

Miles: Within the outdoor lighting market in general, we’re seeing LED color temperature preferences trending warmer, a higher demand for lighting that adapts to occupancy detection and the changing needs of the client. Customers are becoming more concerned with visual comfort expressed as a desire to eliminate LED “pixilation” (the visibility of discrete LEDs) and brightness particularly for luminaires installed at lower mounting heights.

With respect to color temperature, 3000K and 4000K color temperature demand was generally limited to more architectural applications; however, with the efficacy penalty of warmer color temperature LEDs becoming less impactful, many customers in our commercial markets previously selecting 5000K LEDs are now opting for 4000K.

Energy efficiency codes are an obvious driver for the increased use of adaptive lighting, including occupancy/vacancy controlled dimming with California’s Title 24 being a great example, but end customers beyond California not yet impacted by stringent energy codes are increasingly expecting a higher degree of lighting control. Although they may not change the lighting system’s operating schedule on a nightly basis, they want the flexibility to do so or, at a minimum, have the ability to add a future date (i.e. future-proof).

LED luminaire visual comfort (brightness/glare control) and the resulting push to eliminate LED pixilation is an interesting trend particularly from the perspective of a luminaire manufacturer. Glare and brightness are subjective measurements and simply eliminating LED pixilation doesn’t mean the luminaire is suddenly “low glare” or comfortable to look at. While the benefits of an LED optical design that’s “comfortable” seems obvious, in most cases it comes at the cost of lower light level uniformity, decreased luminaire spacing and potentially higher energy costs.

DiLouie: How are these trends shaping demand for outdoor lighting products?

Miles: One area that’s impacted greatly is how we service customer demand and the resulting products we stock for immediate shipment. Ultimately we see higher degrees of product variability. For example, ten years ago our service strategy for commercial wallpacks was to stock the most common metal halide and high pressure lamp units with a refractor lens and a few cutoff versions. Today that same market demands product to be available with and without uplight, 4000K and 5000K CCTs, photocontrol options, motion sensor options and integral batteries for emergency egress.

DiLouie: Generally speaking, how are these trends shaping design of outdoor lighting products?

Miles: Accommodating trends like color temperature preferences are relatively simple; however, accommodating the vast array of lighting control systems and new LED chip technology becomes much more difficult. There are so many great technologies available, accommodating everything isn’t always possible. We look to “future proof” our products as much as possible, knowing a better solution is coming soon. The reality is our product life cycles are much shorter in today’s market, which means our designs change, too.

DiLouie: Energy codes are increasingly requiring bilevel control for dusk-to-dawn lighting. How is this affecting demand for controllable outdoor lighting? How much is bleeding into the retrofit market?

Miles: The demand for controls is increasing. Today we include the same level of bi-level or full dimming control as an option in just about every product we design. For the retrofit market it’s almost mandatory. Many utility rebate programs offer larger incentives for luminaires with a control to improve the customer’s ROI and further reduce energy consumption.

DiLouie: Several years ago, NEMA introduced a new standard control receptacle allowing new controls to be connected using a standard interface. What opportunities does this create for outdoor lighting? What implications does it have for the retrofit market? What implications does it have for smart cities?

Miles: Incorporating the ANSI C136.41 receptacle into outdoor lighting gives just about everyone significantly more flexibility with regards to integrating controls, whether it is today or in the future. Fully integrated control systems offer an aesthetic advantage and can lower the initial acquisition cost but also “locks” the contractor or end user into one standard. The ANSI C136.41 design positions the control equipment outside the luminaire, simplifying maintenance and allowing luminaire selection and maintenance to occur independent of the control selection.

DiLouie: Several years ago, the Model Lighting Ordinance was introduced, allowing municipalities to enact sensible outdoor lighting laws. How extensive has adoption been? How have lighting ordinances affected outdoor lighting product design and demand? What implications does it have for the retrofit market?

Miles: It’s important to remember lighting is both a science and an art. Attempts to assign every space and luminaire into a prescribed “formula” that guarantees success is an oversimplification of a complicated subject and ignores the artistic element of lighting. For example, a landscape architect who focuses on urban streetscapes and areas of public congregation told me the city where he lives had to re-write its lighting ordinance to allow a one-time exception to install the type of lighting the city planners preferred for the downtown space.

DiLouie: What protocols are used for wireless communication for outdoor lighting? What are the pros and cons of each?

Miles: For outdoor lighting, the primary protocols used for wireless communication are Zigbee and SNAP (Synapse Network Appliance Protocol). Both protocols provide a peer-to-peer, self-organizing and self-healing mesh network of devices. The major difference between the two protocols is the wireless radio frequency that they use. Zigbee devices typically use 2.4 GHz radios and SNAP devices use 900 MHz radios. Generally speaking 900 MHz systems have greater propagation (the signal’s ability to reach its intended target through items like trees and rain, get-around buildings, etc.) whereas 2.4 GHz systems can transmit more data. For most users, though, the wireless network frequency likely won’t be a significant concern. While propagation is important, most 2.4 GHz systems likely meet the user’s needs and while the ability to transmit more data sounds important, lighting control schedules, retrieving metering data and reporting don’t contain more than what a 900 MHz system can easily handle.

DiLouie: There’s a lot for electrical distributors to navigate when it comes to outdoor lighting. When recommending a solution, what should distributors be looking for?

Miles: At a bare minimum, ensure a product’s marketing claims can be substantiated with industry standard performance data and test reports. Check the LM79, LM80, TM21 calculations, etc. Doing your due diligence will ensure you’ve partnered with a manufacturer that will deliver on its promises.While the benefits of LED sourced products are significant, selecting the wrong product for the application, premature failures or installing a product that doesn’t perform as advertised won’t only be financially costly but will damage your reputation as a trusted advisor.

DiLouie: What can distributors do to ensure they are most competitive in the outdoor lighting market?

Miles: Invest in your people with lighting education and hire a lighting specialist. The technology is evolving quickly and the market opportunity is tremendous. Be sure the “generalists” in your business can identify opportunities, then bring in your “specialists,” which include your manufacturer partners. The lighting specialists will get into the details, help specify the correct product for the application and ensure your customers’ needs are met.

DiLouie: If you could tell all electrical distributors just one thing about today’s market for LED outdoor lighting, what would it be?

Miles: With just a few exceptions, if your customers haven’t started using LED sourced products outdoors they are likely costing themselves more money in the long run. LED product costs are at an all-time low and performance is at an all-time high.

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Eaton Announces Winners of the 40th Annual SOURCE Awards Lighting Design Competition

Eaton has announced the winners of the 40th Annual SOURCE Awards lighting design competition. The winners were recognized on Monday, May 8 at LIGHTFAIR International 2017 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Six…

Eaton has announced the winners of the 40th Annual SOURCE Awards lighting design competition. The winners were recognized on Monday, May 8 at LIGHTFAIR International 2017 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Six professional awards and seven student awards were presented.

The annual competition, which began in 1977, focuses on furthering the understanding, knowledge and function of lighting as a primary element in design and requires the predominant use of lighting and controls products from Eaton’s lighting solutions. Entries are judged on aesthetics, creativity and technical performance to address specific lighting needs while meeting project constraints and design concept goals.

The 2017 winners include:

Professional Category

Winners:

• Tec Studio Inc., Columbus, Ohio, and designer Ardra Paige Zinkon, CLD, IALD, for the lighting of the Columbus Metropolitan Library-Main Branch, Columbus, Ohio.
• Robert Singer and Associates, Inc., Basalt, Colorado, and the design team of Robert Singer, IES, IALD, and Kim Quint, LEED AP,IALD, for the lighting design of the private residence.

Tec Studio Inc., Columbus, Ohio, and designer Ardra Paige Zinkon, CLD, IALD, won in the Professional Category for the lighting of the Columbus Metropolitan Library-Main Branch, Columbus, Ohio.

Honorable Mentions:

• Karpinski Engineering, Cleveland, Ohio, and designer Marian K. Perez, LC, MIES, for the lighting design of the Erie County Historical Society, Watson-Curtze Mansion and Carriage House in Erie, Pennsylvania.
• Receiving two awards, Lighting Design Innovations, Batavia, New York, and the design team of Paul D. Mercier, MS, LC, IALD, MIES and Kimberly R. Mercier, MBA, PE, P.Eng., LEED AP, MIES, for the lighting upgrade at Whitehead Hall at the City of New York Brooklyn College, Brooklyn, New York, and for the lighting design of the 1st Street SW Underpass in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
• RNL, Denver, Colorado, and designers Rachel Fitzgerald, MIES, IALD, LC, LEED AP BD+C and Jeanette Zagone, LC, for the lighting design of the Metro Division 14 Expo Light Rail Operations and Maintenance Facility in Santa Monica, California.

Student Category

Winner:

• Hazel Chang from Appalachian State University, Boone, North Carolina, for her conceptual lighting design of a music recording company’s sports stadium skybox, titled Sonata Music Classical Skybox. A past winner in 2014 and honorable mention winner in 2015, Chang was under the instruction of Jeanne Mercer-Ballard, M.A., associate professor in the Department of Applied Design, Interior Design program and D. Jason Miller, AIA, NCARB, assistant professor in the Department of Sustainable Technology and the Built Environment.

Honorable Mentions:

• Elizabeth Hundley from Appalachian State University for her conceptual lighting design office building project, titled Incandescent. Hundley was the winner of last year’s competition and was under the direction of Hessam Ghamari, Ph.D., assistant professor in the Department of Applied Design, Interior Design program, as well as Jeanne Mercer-Ballard.
• Emma Morris, also from Appalachian State University, for her conceptual lighting design restaurant project, titled “Bloom” a Turkish-American Restaurant. Morris was under the direction of Mercer-Ballard.
• Marissa Sexton from University of Missouri-St. Louis and Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri, for her healthcare facility project, titled Healing Light – The Green Health Center. Sexton was under the direction of Thomas P. Collins, P.E., adjunct professor of Electrical Engineering.
• Emily Miller from The University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Greensboro, North Carolina, for her conceptual eatery project, titled Element. Miller was under the direction of Amanda Gale, Ph.D., assistant professor of the Interior Architecture program at the university.
• Kassondra Hauck from Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, Michigan, for her project, titled The Community Teen Center. Hauck was under the instruction of Julie Qun Zuo, associate professor of Interior Design in the Department of Human Environmental Studies at the university.

Award of Recognition:

• Abigail Chin, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, for her restaurant project, titled Gourmasia. Chin was under the direction of Kevin Woolley, Ph.D., assistant professor of Interior Design in the Department of Art and Design at Purdue University.

The professional winning firms, Tec Studio Inc. and Robert Singer and Associates, Inc., each received a $5,000 monetary award. Student winner Chang received $2,000 and each of the Honorable Mention professionals and students was awarded $500. All winners were presented with a crystal trophy and offered an invitation to attend a complimentary class at the SOURCE, Eaton’s state-of-the-art lighting educational center located in Peachtree City, Georgia. The students’ instructors are also invited to attend a class.

Click here to learn more about this year’s winners.

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IES Publishes Research on LED LDD

LED area and roadway lighting promises energy and maintenance cost savings, but the longevity of the LED light source presents a hitch. Traditionally, luminaires are cleaned upon relamping. If relamping…

LED area and roadway lighting promises energy and maintenance cost savings, but the longevity of the LED light source presents a hitch. Traditionally, luminaires are cleaned upon relamping. If relamping does not occur, dirt buildup becomes a more important maintenance factor. That being said, it is claimed LED luminaires are less prone to dirt accumulation. So what’s an appropriate cleaning interval?

In 2016, the Illuminating Engineering Society published an important maintenance study conducted by the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute as IES-RES-1-16. Specifically, VTTI looked at luminaire dirt depreciation (LDD) in LED roadway luminaires, impact on light distribution and the efficacy of different cleaning methods.

The study evaluated the impact on dirt and various cleaning methods on a range of luminaire types in both in a laboratory and in the field. While insufficient sampling did not yield new LDD curves, the authors were able to recommend a linear LDD rate for consideration. Key findings:

* LDD is different for LED luminaires and can be significant at end of life
* An alcohol solution or mild detergent solution can be safely applied to many luminaires and is more effective at mitigating LDD during cleaning than dry wipe or plain water
* Minimum potential LDD and change in lighting uniformity rates are +1 percent per year LDD and +1 percent per year uniformity change for luminaires with flat glass luminaire optics, and +3 percent per year LDD and no uniformity change for luminaires with no luminaire optics.

These findings and plenty more can be found in the study, which is available free for download here.

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